Energy performance contract of street lighting solution

Table of Contents

Introduction

CE certification means that the product has reached the safety requirements stipulated by the EU Directive, which mainly includes CE EMC and CE LVD. The EMC of LED lamps is an electromagnetic compatibility directive, including conducted emission and radiated emission and harmonics. The LVD of lamps is a low-voltage directive, which is specially used for electrical safety performance testing. Both EMC and LVD belong to the CE standard, and LED lighting products should comply with these two directives of CE standard. According to EU regulations, LED lamps exported to EU countries must pass CE certification, which includes the EMC and LVD directive. The EU CE certification EMC directive for LED lighting products is 2014/30/EU and its main standards are EN55015, EN61000-3-2, EN61000-3-3 and EN61547. LED lighting products EU CE certification LVD directive is 2014/35/EU, and its main test standards are EN 60598-1, EN 60598-2 series, EN 61347-1, EN 61347-2-13, EN 62031 and EN 62471 etc. Beside this, structure of the LED lighting also should be considered. Becuase it matters with the lifetime, installtion and maintenance of LED products. This article will mainly discuss the safety and structural requirements of street lighting.

Why we shall pay attention to the safety and structural requirements?

ZGSM focuses on the production of LED street lights, we believe that LED street lights (road lighting) play a vital role in the overall safety of drivers and pedestrians, can significantly improve the public use of outdoor spaces at night, and improve the overall quality of life in the area. From the driver’s perspective, proper road lighting can help drivers identify road patterns, environmental conditions when they are approaching streets, intersections, landmarks, pedestrians, wildlife, and other vehicles, thereby minimizing collisions, injuries, and even fatalities. At the same time, pedestrians and the general public also benefit greatly from high-quality road lighting. Pedestrian crossing areas are easier to identify with proper road lighting. Studies have also shown that people feel safer when proper road and outdoor lighting is installed.

Because of the role of LED street lights in public safety, our point of view is that lighting products must meet the requirements of relevant standards and directives, including CE EMC and LVD standards. Of course, the structure of lamps must also meet the corresponding requirements. Public safety of street lighting systems is the primary responsibility of street lighting asset owners, who need to ensure that their systems are maintained and operate safely, which mitigates the risk of electric shock to the public, among other things. Fortunately, there are laboratories providing relevant testing and certification all over the world, providing a full range of product safety and performance testing and certification services to ensure that products meet relevant electromagnetic compatibility, low voltage and structure standards before they are put on the market.

Equipment covered under the EMC Directive and LVD

We list the different equipment which are covered under the electromagnetic compatibility.

DirectiveEMCLVD
Equiments includedAn electrical or electronic productElectrical appliances
Lighting equipment
Electrical cables
Power Supply Units
Equiments excludedQuartz watchesElectrical equipment for use in an explosive atmosphere
CablesElectrical equipment for radiology and medical use
Passive antennasElectrical parts for passenger lifts
Corded speakers or headphonesPlugs and sockets for domestic us

Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (EMC)

The lamps shall comply with the EU Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive 2014/30/EU, and meet the EMC requirements specified in the Directive according to the standards shown in Table 2. Electromagnetic compatibility testing refers to the ability of a device or system to work normally in its electromagnetic environment without causing unacceptable electromagnetic disturbance to anything in the environment. EMC is an important indicator for evaluating product quality. EMC testing is mainly divided into: EMI (Electro-Magnetic Interference) – electromagnetic disturbance test and EMS (Electro-Magnetic Susceptibility) – electromagnetic immunity test.

EMI (Electro-Magnetic Interference) – electromagnetic disturbance test, the main test content includes Conducted Emission – conducted disturbance test and Radiated Emission – radiation disturbance test. EMS (Electro-Magnetic Susceptibility) – electromagnetic immunity test, the main test content includes ESD – electrostatic immunity test and SURGE – surge (impact) immunity test. Compliance with EMC requirements shall be demonstrated by the manufacturer’s Declaration of Conformity (DoC) in relation to the CE marking and its technical file or by the test results of a conformity assessment body.

Table 2. EMC standards specified in the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive 2014/30/EU.

Standard NumberDescriptionGeneral purpose luminairesRoad and tunnel lightingFlood lighting
EN/IEC 60598-1:2021Luminaires – Part 1: General requirements and tests
EN/IEC 60598-2-1:2021Luminaires – Part 2-1: Particular requirements – Fixed general purpose luminaires  
EN 60598-2-3:2003Luminaires – Part 2-3: Particular requirements – Luminaires for road and street lighting  
EN 60598-2-5:2015Luminaires – Part 2-5: Particular requirements – Floodlights  
EN 62493:2015Assessment of lighting equipment related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields

EN 55015

Test content according to the EN 55015 standard mainly includes conducted emission test and tadiated disturbance/emission test. The former mainly corresponds to conducted emission from 9KHz to 30MHz, while the latter mainly corresponds to radiated emission from 30MHz to 300MHz. Below is the photo of ZGSM rifle series which is under EMI testing.

EN 61000-3-2

EN 61000-3-2 standard deals with harmonic currents caused by electrical and electronic equipment with an input current less than or equal to 16A. In addition, the equipment must be intended for connection to a public low-voltage network. The EN 61000-3-2 standard defines clear limits for harmonic currents. All electrical or electronic equipment complying with EN61000-3-2 is classified as Class A to Class D. Lighting equipment and accessories are designated as Class C. For lighting fixtures, the harmonic current emission limit varies according to the wattage. The figure below shows the harmonic limit of some wattages and ZGSM street lamp are undergoing related tests.

EN 61000-3-3

This standard describes the limit values for voltage changes and flicker per phase below 16A in low-voltage power supply systems. The new standard does not require testing for incandescent lamps below 1000W and discharge lamps and LED lamps below 600W, which are considered to meet the standard requirements. While in the old version of the standard, it is necessary to test LED lamps above 200W to determine whether they meet the standard requirements.

EN 61000-4-5

According to the requirements of the EN 61000-4-5 standard, the lightning surge test on the power line and the communication line is respectively simulated. Since the impedances of the lines are different, the waveforms of the surges on these two lines are also different, so they should be simulated separately. The surge immunity of the luminaire is at least 6kv in differential mode and at least 8kv in common mode. The test shall be carried out according to the standard EN 61000-4-5:2014, using 1.2/50µs – 8/20µs combined wave, with a source impedance of 2Ω in differential mode and 12Ω in common mode. For installations with overhead cables or high masts (HM > 20 m), the surge immunity of the luminaire shall be at least 10kv in differential mode and at least 10kv in common mode. To meet this requirement, a separate surge protection device can be used. In this case, the test shall be carried out according to the standard EN 61643-11:2013.

Low Voltage Directive (LVD)

Luminaires shall comply with the Low Voltage Directive 2014/35/EU and meet the safety requirements for luminaires specified in the directive according to the criteria stated in Table 3. The purpose of the LVD is that electrical products, when properly installed, maintained and used in accordance with their intended use, do not endanger the health and safety of humans and domestic animals, or endanger property. The Low Voltage Directive covers all risks arising from the use of electrical equipment, not only electrical, but also mechanical, chemical (especially emissions of hazardous substances), health effects of noise and vibration, necessary ergonomic requirements, and protect against the hazards specified in the directive. The fulfillment of the safety requirements of the luminaire must be accompanied by the manufacturer’s Declaration of Conformity (DoC) and its technical documentation (CE LVD certification) related to the CE mark.

Table 3. Safety standards specified in the Low Voltage Directive 2014/35/EU.

Standard NumberDescriptionGeneral purpose luminairesRoad and tunnel lightingFlood lighting
EN/IEC 60598-1:2021Luminaires – Part 1: General requirements and tests
EN/IEC 60598-2-1:2021Luminaires – Part 2-1: Particular requirements – Fixed general purpose luminaires  
EN 60598-2-3:2003Luminaires – Part 2-3: Particular requirements – Luminaires for road and street lighting  
EN 60598-2-5:2015Luminaires – Part 2-5: Particular requirements – Floodlights  
EN 62493:2015Assessment of lighting equipment related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields

EN 60598-1

  • EN IEC 60598-1:2021/A11:2022 was revised by CENELEC on February 16, 2022. All luminaires shall comply with EN IEC 60598-1:2021 which include the following:
  • Equipped with marks of compliance with this standard. The durability of the marking shall meet the test requirements defined in the standard EN IEC 60598-1:2021.
  • Luminaires should be assessed for blue light hazards according to the technical report IEC/TR 62778:2014. This requirement is contained in the standard EN IEC 60598-1:2021.
  • The power supply voltage of the lamp is 230v. For lamps with rated input power ≤ 50w, the circuit power factor of lamp power supply λ ≥ 0.90, for lamps with rated input power > 50w (100% power, initial luminous flux of lamps), the circuit power factor of lamp power supply λ ≥0.95. The power factor of the power supply circuit for dimming lamps (dimming to 20% of the initial luminous flux) should be λ ≥ 0.60.
  • The luminaire including all electronic equipment shall operate without failure at an ambient temperature of -35 ≤ ta ≤ +25°C.
  • The protection level of road and railway lamps should be clear, class I or class II. At present, most European countries prefer Class II.
  • External wiring shall be suitable for outdoor use.
  • For the external wiring of all road lighting devices, the nominal cross-sectional area of the cable conductors should be ≥ 1.5 mm2. The wires shall have stranded conductors according to standard EN 60228:2005.

EN 60598-2-1, EN 60598-2-3, EN 60598-2-5

In addition to 60598-1, there are also standards for specific lamps. For example, fixed general purpose luminaires should meet the 60598-2-1 standard, luminaires for road and street lighting should meet the 60598-2-3 standard, and floodlights should meet the 60598-2-5 standard. Due to the large amount of content involved, we will not expand it here.